The thermoelectric effect

is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa via a thermocouple.[1] A thermoelectric device creates voltage when there is a different temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, heat is transferred from one side to the other, creating a temperature difference. At the atomic scale, an applied temperature gradient causes charge carriers in the material to diffuse from the hot side to the cold side.

This effect can be used to generate electricity, measure temperature or change the temperature of objects. Because the direction of heating and cooling is determined by the polarity of the applied voltage, thermoelectric devices can be used as temperature controllers.

The term “thermoelectric effect” encompasses three separately identified effects: the Seebeck effect, Peltier effect, and Thomson effect. The Seebeck and Peltier effects are different manifestations of the same physical process; textbooks may refer to this process as the Peltier–Seebeck effect (the separation derives from the independent discoveries by French physicist Jean Charles Athanase Peltier and Baltic German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck). The Thomson effect is an extension of the Peltier–Seebeck model and is credited to Lord Kelvin.

Joule heating, the heat that is generated whenever a current is passed through a resistive material, is related, though it is not generally termed a thermoelectric effect. The Peltier–Seebeck and Thomson effects are thermodynamically reversible,[2] whereas Joule heating is not.

iron loss angle

There are times when permanent magnet motors are designed with a magnet made with overhang, in other words made longer than the stator’s stack length, in order to strengthen the magnetic field that it creates. A space is necessary in the stator core to supply the coil ends, and there is a wasted space in the rotor if the rotor and stator have the same stack length, so a magnet is placed in this space with the objective of increasing the magnetic flux without making the magnet thicker. However, the magnetic field produced by the overhanging part of the magnet enters the stator at an angle, so magnetic flux is produced in the lamination direction, which creates a possibility of increasing eddy current loss by a wide margin. When the overhang is too big, the magnet’s magnetic field goes to waste because it does not reach the stator.

Angle of lag = ɸ0 Pc = V1 I0 cos ɸ0 R0 = V1 / Ic Xm = V1 / Im .


For this reason it is necessary to set up the overhang amount properly while looking at the trade-off between an increase in torque and an increase in losses. A magnetic field analysis using the finite element method (FEM), which can obtain the relationship between a three dimensional magnetic field and eddy currents, is an effective method for an advance study.
This Application Note presents the use of a no-load iron loss analysis of an SPM motor with and without an overhanging magnet